Sigmund Freud is probably the most well known theorist when it comes to the development of personality. This theory is probably the most well known as well as the most controversial, as Freud believed that we develop through stages based upon a particular erogenous zone. During each stage, an unsuccessful completion means that a child becomes fixated on that particular erogenous zone and either over— or under-indulges once he or she becomes an adult. Oral Stage Birth to 18 months. During the oral stage, the child if focused on oral pleasures sucking. Too much or too little gratification can result in an Oral Fixation or Oral Personality which is evidenced by a preoccupation with oral activities. This type of personality may have a stronger tendency to smoke, drink alcohol, over eat, or bite his or her nails. Personality wise, these individuals may become overly dependent upon others, gullible, and perpetual followers. On the other hand, they may also fight these urges and develop pessimism and aggression toward others.
Psychosexual Theory of Development
Sigmund Freud — believed that personality develops during early childhood. For Freud, childhood experiences shape our personalities and behavior as adults. Freud viewed development as discontinuous; he believed that each of us must pass through a serious of stages during childhood, and that if we lack proper nurturance and parenting during a stage, we may become stuck, or fixated, in that stage. While Freud believed that personality is shaped only in childhood, Erikson proposed that personality development takes place all through the lifespan. Erikson suggested that how we interact with others is what affects our sense of self, or what he called the ego identity. Figure 1. Erik Erikson proposed the psychosocial theory of development. Erikson proposed that we are motivated by a need to achieve competence in certain areas of our lives. According to psychosocial theory, we experience eight stages of development over our lifespan, from infancy through late adulthood.
In Freudian psychology , psychosexual development is a central element of the psychoanalytic sexual drive theory. Freud believed that personality developed through a series of childhood stages in which pleasure seeking energies from the id became focused on certain erogenous areas. An erogenous zone is characterized as an area of the body that is particularly sensitive to stimulation. The five psychosexual stages are the oral , the anal , the phallic , the latent , and the genital. The erogenous zone associated with each stage serves as a source of pleasure.
They were all coined by famed psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud as part of his psychosexual theory of development. Not to worry! We put together this conversational guide to help you understand what psychosexual development is all about. The theory is more multilayered than a wedding cake, but it boils down to this: Sexual pleasure plays a major role in human development. Each stage is associated with a specific part of the body, or more specifically, erogenous zone. You either remain stuck, never progressing to the next stage, or progress but exhibit remnants or unresolved issues from the previous stage. Quick: Think about a baby. Chances are you visualized a little scoundrel sitting on their bum, smiling, and sucking on their fingers. Meaning the mouth is the primary source of pleasure.